Department of Chemistry

CHEMISTRY : - The word chemistry comes from the word alchemy, an earlier set of practices that encompassed elements of chemistry, metallurgy, philosophy, astrology, astronomy, mysticism and medicine; it is commonly thought of as the quest to turn lead or another common starting material into gold. The word alchemy in turn is derived from the Arabic word al-kīmīā, meaning alchemy.. An alchemist was called a 'chemist' in popular speech, and later the suffix "-ry" was added to this to describe the art of the chemist as "chemistry"

Introduction:- Chemistry is the science of matter, especially its chemical reactions, but also its composition, structure and properties. Chemistry is concerned with atoms and their interactions with other atoms, and particularly with the properties of chemical bonds. Chemistry is sometimes called "the central science" because it connects physics with other natural sciences such as geology and biology. Chemistry is a branch of physical science but distinct from physics. Hence it is said, Physics is the basis of chemistry. Chemistry is the basis of biology. Biology is the basis for psychology. Psychology is the basis of sociology. Chemistry is related to other subjects as it starts with math- Abstract treatments of numbers, sets, equations, etc. You take math and start to apply it to our real world, you get physics. Equations governing how things move and interact. Eventually you take those equations and try to apply them to the very works, sort of, but really to describe lots of little particles in a system you need other governing principles, etc-- The borderline is called physical chemistry which deals with atomic structure and kinetics of reactions things like that. You move into chemistry, describing systems of molecules and atoms and how they work. These can get more complex into things like polymers, eventually you start dealing with even more complex systems of molecules. Here the borderline is biochemistry, discussing the replication of DNA and RNA, proteins, giant macromolecules and moving up into the cell and cell systems... All this is well and good, but again, not super practical if you want to talk about a _really_ complex system of cells, so you need more rules, etc-- and then you move into biology the study of large multicellular organisms, and how they interact. In a nutshell I guess you could say this: Biology is applied chemistry Chemistry is applied physics Physics is applied math Math is just plain abstract dealing with numbers Traditional chemistry starts with the study of elementary particles, atoms, molecules, substances, metals, crystals and other aggregates of matter. in solid, liquid, and gas states, whether in isolation or combination. The interactions, reactions and transformations that are studied in chemistry are a result of interaction either between different chemical substances or between matter and energy.

DEFINITIONS OF CHEMISTRY: :- In retrospect, the definition of chemistry has changed over time, as new discoveries and theories add to the functionality of the science. Shown below are some of the standard definitions used by various noted chemists:
a) Alchemy (330) – the study of the composition of waters, movement, growth, embodying, disembodying, drawing the spirits from bodies and bonding the spirits within bodies (Zosimos).
b) Chymistry (1661) – the subject of the material principles of mixed bodies (Boyle).
c) Chymistry (1663) – a scientific art, by which one learns to dissolve bodies, and draw from them the different substances on their composition, and how to unite them again, and exalt them to a higher perfection (Glaser).
d) Chemistry (1730) – the art of resolving mixed, compound, or aggregate bodies into their principles; and of composing such bodies from those principles (Stahl).
e) Chemistry (1837) – the science concerned with the laws and effects of molecular forces (Dumas).
f) Chemistry (1947) – the science of substances: their structure, their properties, and the reactions that change them into other substances (Pauling).
g) Chemistry (1998) – the study of matter and the changes it undergoes (Chang).
h) Chemistry (1998) – the study of matter and the changes it undergoes (Chang).
i) Chemistry is the study of substances; their properties, structure and the changes they undergo.

Vision:- To produce graduates with a sound knowledge in chemistry having international recognition and the ability to fulfill chemistry based current needs of the country.

Mission:- The chemistry department pledges itself to encourage in the broadest and most liberal manner, the advancement of chemistry in all of its branches through its education, research and service.

History of Chamistry :- Chemistry is an ancient subject of approximately 3,000 B.C. At that time it was more than an art than a science. It was recorded the first known chemists were women who manufactured perfumes from various substances. Ancient Egyptians pioneered the art of synthetic "wet" chemistry up to 4,000 years ago. By 1000 BC ancient civilizations were using technologies that formed the basis of the various branches of chemistry such as; extracting metal from their ores, making pottery and glazes, fermenting beer and wine, making pigments for cosmetics and painting, extracting chemicals from plants for medicine and perfume, making cheese, dying cloth, tanning leather, rendering fat into soap, making glass, and making alloys like bronze. Democritus' atomist philosophy was later adopted by Epicurus (341–270 BCE). The genesis of chemistry can be traced to the widely observed phenomenon of burning that led to metallurgy—the art and science of processing ores to get . The greed for gold led to the discovery of the process for its purification, even though the underlying principles were not well understood—it was thought to be a transformation rather than purification. Many scholars in those days thought it reasonable to believe that there exist means for transforming cheaper (base) metals into gold. This gave way to alchemy and the search for the Philosopher's Stone which was believed to bring about such a transformation by mere touch. Greek atomism dates back to 440 BC, as what might be indicated by the book De Rerum Natura (The Nature of Things) written by the Roman Lucretius in 50 BC. Much of the early development of purification methods is described by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis Historia. A tentative outline is as follows: Egyptian alchemy [3,000 BCE – 400 BCE], formulate early "element" theories such as the Ogdoad.
1. Greek alchemy [332 BCE – 642 CE], the Macedonian king Alexander the Great conquers Egypt and founds Alexandria, having the world's largest library, where scholars and wise men gather to study.
2. Islamic alchemy [642 CE – 1200], the Muslim conquest of Egypt; development of alchemy by Jābir ibn Hayyān, al-Razi and others; Jābir modifies Aristotle's theories; advances in processes and apparatus.
3. European alchemy [1300 – present], Pseudo-Geber builds on Arabic chemistry. From the 12th century, major advances in the chemical arts shifted from Arab lands to western Europe.
4. Chemistry [1661], Boyle writes his classic chemistry text The Sceptical Chymist.
5. Chemistry [1787], Lavoisier writes his classic Elements of Chemistry.
6. Chemistry [1803], Dalton publishes his Atomic Theory.
7. Chemistry [1869], Dmitri Mendeleev presented his Periodic table being the framework of the modern chemistry The earliest pioneers of Chemistry, and inventors of the modern scientific method, were medieval Arab and Persian scholars. They introduced precise observation and controlled experimentation into the field and discovered numerous Chemical substances. "Chemistry as a science was almost created by the Muslims; for in this field, where the Greeks (so far as we know) were confined to industrial experience and vague hypothesis, the Saracens introduced precise observation, controlled experiment, and careful records. They invented and named the alembic (al-anbiq), chemically analyzed innumerable substances, composed lapidaries, distinguished alkalis and acids, investigated their affinities, studied and manufactured hundreds of drugs. Alchemy, which the Muslims inherited from Egypt, contributed to chemistry by a thousand incidental discoveries, and by its method, which was the most scientific of all medieval operations." The most influential Muslim chemists were Jābir ibn Hayyān (Geber, d. 815), al-Kindi (d. 873), al-Razi (d. 925), al-Biruni (d. 1048) and Alhazen (d. 1039). The works of Jābir became more widely known in Europe through Latin translations by a pseudo-Geber in 14th century Spain, who also wrote some of his own books under the pen name "Geber". The contribution of Indian alchemists and metallurgists in the development of chemistry was also quite significant. The emergence of chemistry in Europe was primarily due to the recurrent incidence of the plague and blights there during the so called Dark Ages. This gave rise to a need for medicines. It was thought that there exists a universal medicine called the Elixir of Life that can cure all diseases, but like the Philosopher's Stone, it was never found. Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier is considered the "Father of Modern Chemistry".
8. Chemistry indeed came of age when Antoine Lavoisier (1743–1794), developed the theory of Conservation of mass in 1783; and the development of the Atomic Theory by John Dalton around 1800. The Law of Conservation of Mass resulted in the reformulation of chemistry based on this law and the oxygen theory of combustion, which was largely based on the work of Lavoisier. Lavoisier's fundamental contributions to chemistry were a result of a conscious effort to fit all experiments into the framework of a single theory. He established the consistent use of the chemical balance, used oxygen to overthrow the phlogiston theory, and developed a new system of chemical nomenclature and made contribution to the modern metric system. Lavoisier also worked to translate the archaic and technical language of chemistry into something that could be easily understood by the largely uneducated masses, leading to an increased public interest in chemistry. All these advances in chemistry led to what is usually called the chemical revolution. The contributions of Lavoisier led to what is now called modern chemistry—the chemistry that is studied in educational institutions all over the world. It is because of these and other contributions that Antoine Lavoisier is often celebrated as the "Father of Modern Chemistry". The later discovery of Friedrich Wöhler that many natural substances, organic compounds, can indeed be synthesized in a chemistry laboratory also helped the modern chemistry to mature from its infancy. Chemistry is often considered the root of all science. Since everything in the physical universe is made up of chemicals. If you think about any other science they are all rooted in chemistry. At the most fundamental level, chemistry can be organized along the lines shown here. Dynamics refers to the details of that rearrangements of atoms that occur during chemical change, and that strongly affect the rate at which change occurs. Energetics refers to the thermodynamics of chemical change, relating to the uptake or release of heat. More importantly, this aspect of chemistry controls the direction in which change occurs, and the mixture of substances that results. Composition and structure define the substances that are results of chemical change. Structure refers specifically to the relative arrangements of the atoms in space. The extent to which a given structure can persist is itself determined by energetics and dynamics. Synthesis, strictly speaking, refers to formation of new (and usually more complex) substances from simpler ones, but in the present context we use it in the more general sense to denote the operations required to bring about chemical change and to isolate the desired products.

Department Goals & Objectives of Chemistry:
To advance the chemical sciences through…….
• Maintenance and development of highest quality undergraduate and post graduate programs.
• Producing research finding that have significant impact on issues as… education, health, environment and energy.
• Providing consultation and advice to government bodies, industries and schools.
• Developing scientific attitude, research skills, interest in basic sciences and overall personality of students which leads to development of nation.

BRANCHES OF CHEMISTRY: :- Chemistry is studied under following headings. The important are :
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY : Organic chemistry is the study of the structure, properties, composition, mechanisms, and reactions of organic compounds. An organic compound is defined as any compound based on a carbon skeleton. It is called as the chemistry of carbon compounds. It is the largest of all sciences in its actual content. Over a million organic compounds are already known and thousands of new compounds are being synthesized in the laboratory. The important compound that we use today are perfumes, dyes, paints, oils, fats, waxes, carbohydrates like glucose, sucrose, proteins like amino acids, polymers, like nylon, terylene, rubber, teflon, resin, fertilizers like urea, insecticides like D.D.T., B.H.C. powder, steroids like cholesterol., hormones, alkaloids like nicotine, cocaine, terpenoids like menthol, camphor, all viatmins, most synthetic drugs used against different diseases, etc.
INORGANIC CHEMISTRY : In this branch elements and their compounds are studied. The chemistry of some compounds of carbon like its oxides, carbonates and hydrogen caronates. Different ores, minerals, alloys, etc are the products of this branch. Inorganic chemistry is the study of the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds.
CHEMISTRY : It is the study of the physical and fundamental basis of chemical systems and processes. In particular, the energetics and dynamics of such systems and processes are of interest to physical chemists. Important areas of study include chemical thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, electrochemistry, statistical mechanics, spectroscopy, and more recently, astrochemistry. Physical chemistry has large overlap with molecular physics. Physical chemistry involves the use of infinitesimal calculus in deriving equations. It is usually associated with quantum chemistry and theoretical chemistry. Physical chemistry is a distinct discipline from chemical physics, but again, there is very strong overlap
CHEMISTRY : It is the preparation, characterization, and understanding of substances with a useful function. The field is a new breadth of study in graduate programs, and it integrates elements from all classical areas of chemistry with a focus on fundamental issues that are unique to materials. Primary systems of study include the chemistry of condensed phases (solids, liquids, polymers) and interfaces between different phases.
NEUROCHEMISTRY : It is the study of neurochemicals; including transmitters, peptides, proteins, lipids, sugars, and nucleic acids; their interactions, and the roles they play in forming, maintaining, and modifying the nervous system.
BIOCHEMISTRY : It is the study of the chemicals, chemical reactions and chemical interactions that take place in living organisms. Biochemistry and organic chemistry are closely related, as in medicinal chemistry or neurochemistry. Biochemistry is also associated with molecular biology and genetics. Other disciplines within chemistry are traditionally grouped by the type of matter being studied or the kind of study. These include inorganic chemistry, the study of inorganic matter; organic chemistry, the study of organic (carbon based) matter; biochemistry, the study of substances found in biological organisms; physical chemistry, the study of chemical processes using physical concepts such as thermodynamics and quantum mechanics; and analytical chemistry, the analysis of material samples to gain an understanding of their chemical composition and structure. Many more specialized disciplines have emerged in recent years, e.g. neurochemistry the chemical study of the nervous system. Other fields include agrochemistry, astrochemistry (and cosmochemistry), atmospheric chemistry, chemical engineering, chemical biology, chemo-informatics, electrochemistry, environmental chemistry, femtochemistry, flavor chemistry, flow chemistry, geochemistry, green chemistry, histochemistry, history of chemistry, hydrogenation chemistry, immunochemistry, marine chemistry, materials science, mathematical chemistry, mechanochemistry, medicinal chemistry, molecular biology, molecular mechanics, nanotechnology, natural product chemistry, oenology, organometallic chemistry, petrochemistry, pharmacology, photochemistry, physical organic chemistry, phytochemistry, polymer chemistry, radiochemistry, solid-state chemistry, sonochemistry, supramolecular chemistry, surface chemistry, synthetic chemistry, thermochemistry, and many others.

Professional societies
  • American Chemical Society
  • American Society for Neurochemistry
  • Chemical Institute of Canada
  • Chemical Society of Peru
  • International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
  • Royal Australian Chemical Institute
  • Royal Netherlands Chemical Society
  • Royal Society of Chemistry
  • Society of Chemical Industry
  • World Association of Theoretical and Computational Chemists

SCOPE OF CHEMISTRY : The days are long past when one person could hope to have a detailed knowledge of all areas of chemistry. Those pursuing their interests into specific areas of chemistry communicate with others who share the same interests. Over time a group of chemists with specialized research interests become the founding members of an area of specialization. The areas of specialization that emerged early in the history of chemistry, such as organic, inorganic, physical, analytical, and industrial chemistry, along with biochemistry, remain of greatest general interest. There has been, however, much growth in the areas of polymer, environmental, and medicinal chemistry during the 20th century. Moreover, new specialities continue to appear, as, for example, pesticide, forensic, and computer chemistry. Fossil fuels have been our primary natural source for many organic chemicals for more than a century, but our fossil fuel resources are finite, and they are being rapidly depleted (especially oil and gas). What will be our sources of organic materials in the future? Since fossil fuels are nonrenewable resources, it is believed that the twenty-first century will see a shift toward greater dependence on renewable raw materials. The field of organic chemistry includes more than twenty million compounds for which properties have been determined and recorded in the literature. Many hundreds of new compounds are added every day. Much more than half of the world's chemists are organic chemists. Some new organic compounds are simply isolated from plants or animals; some are made by modifying naturally occurring chemicals; but most new organic compounds are actually synthesized in the laboratory from other (usually smaller) organic molecules. Over the years organic chemists have developed a broad array of reactions that allow them to make all kinds of complex products from simpler starting materials. We are living in a world which is largely shaped by organic compounds, e.g.: the clothes we wear (wool, cotton, leather, synthetics); the commodities we use (wood, plastic); the sources of primary energy we still use every day (petroleum, natural gas, coal); the remedies with which illnesses can be cured. But organic compounds can also put our lives at risk, e.g.: the insecticide DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), which accumulates in nature and the food chain more and more; the highly toxic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins; the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which among other things are used as propellants in spray cans and which damage the protective ozone layer of the atmosphere.

Importance of Chemistry in Daily Life Outside Home :- • The paints and varnished we use to paint our home are a chemical mixtures. The redoxide that we use to protect our iron railings contains iron oxide which offers a protective layer over the irons. • In the garden we use sprays to kill insects from attacking our plants. • Vermiwash is a liquid fertilizer. It is used as a leaf spray. • Azdirachtin is a biopesticide. • Air is a mixture of gases. It contains the life supporting oxygen for human kind and nitrogen for plants. In villages the air is pure. There are trees that supply oxygen to man. In return man gives carbondioxide to them which is essential tp plants and trees. Nature has arranged this exchange program so that both man and nature live peacefully side by side. But today’s vehicles which consume petrol and diesel emit out green house gases dangerous for the survival on earth. Due to these green house gases, a hole has appeared in the ozone layer that protects us from UV rays. As a result global warming has taken place which is a destroyer of the planet earth. The other chemicals that add to this disaster are the ones we use in our refrigerator, airconditoner etc. Chemistry in daily life is good as long as it balances the nature. When nature is outbalanced by these chemicals, it becomes a disaster.

• Students of Chemistry get jobs after completion of B.Sc. with Chemistry in pharma, fertilizer, chemical companies with a heavy package.
• Students can approach for teaching after B.Sc. B.Ed. as chemistry one of the subject in science at secondary level.
• Most of the Chemistry students can easily face competitive exams like MPSC, UPSC, NET, SET, GATE, DRDO, etc.
• After completion of education with Chemistry students can opt for post graduation along with research for brighter future.

• To develop research laboratory.
• To start job oriented optional subjects at UG level e.g. Analytical Chemistry, Industrial Chemistry and Polymer Chemistry.
• Collaboration with Pharmaceutical and Chemical industries.

2) Faculty Profile


Dr. Yusuf

Assit. Prof.

M.A., B.Ed.,M.Phil., Ph.D.
Dept. of Chemistry Kohinoor College Khultabad, Aurangabad

3) Programs & Courses offered

Under Graduate: BECHELOR OF SCIENCE (Chemistry)

Chemistry, Kohinoor Arts Commerce And Science College Khuldabad Dist.Aurangabad

Duration:- THREE YEARS

Establishment :- 2008

Post Graduate: MASTER OF SCIENCE (Organic Chemistry)

Chemistry, Kohinoor Arts Commerce And Science College Khuldabad Dist.Aurangabad

Duration:- TWO YEARS

Establishment :- 2013

Post Graduate: MASTER OF SCIENCE (Drug Chemistry)

Chemistry, Kohinoor Arts Commerce And Science College Khuldabad Dist.Aurangabad

Duration:- TWO YEARS

Establishment :- 2018

5) Activities and Achievements

Acadmic Year 2019-2020

Guest Lectures :-
Assistant Professor Palve Manoj
(Department Chemistry, Indraraj Arts, Commerce & Science College Sillod, Dist.Aurangabad.)

Study Tour :-
“Government Institute of Forensic Science College Aurangabad”
Department of Chemistry has organized one day educational visit to

Acadmic Year 2018-2019

Guest Lectures :-
"Role of Green Chemistry in Daily Life".
Resource Person Professor Dr. B. K. Magare.
(Department of Chemistry Shivaji College Kannad)

Study Tour :-
“Water Treatment Plant of Aurangabad Municipal Corporation at Pharola, Dist.Aurangabad”
Department of Chemistry has organized one day educational visit to

Acadmic Year 2017-2018

Guest Lectures :-
"An Epic Story: Discovery & Development of Penicillin".
Resource Person Professor Dr. R. A. Mane.
(Divisional Director, Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University Nashik)

Study Tour :-
“Central Facility Centre Of Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University Aurangabad.”
Department of Chemistry has organized one day educational visit to

• Workshop
One Day Workshop Department of Chemistry organized one day workshop on “Analytical Tools” On 6th February 2018. Resource person Dr.Mohammed Mohsin, (Assistant Professor Department of chemistry, Dr. Rafique Zakariya College for women Aurangabad.)

Acadmic Year 2016-2017

Guest Lectures :-
Dr. Sayyed Hussain and Dr. Takale Surendra

Study Tour :-
“Water Treatment Plant of Aurangabad Municipal Corporationat Pharola, Dist. Aurangabad”
Department of Chemistry has organized one day educational visit to
Study Tour :-
“Central Institute of Plastic Engineering and Technology (CIPET) Aurangabad”
Department of Chemistry has organized one day educational visit to